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Editor-in-Chief

Laurence J. Egan, Ireland

Associate Editors

Maria T. Abreu, USAShomron Ben-Horin, IsraelSilvio Danese, ItalyPeter Lakatos, HungaryMiles Parkes, UKGijs van den Brink, NLSéverine Vermeire, Belgium

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Neurologic manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases: Current knowledge and novel insights

Christos D. Zois , Konstantinos H. Katsanos , Maria Kosmidou , Epameinondas V. Tsianos
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crohns.2009.10.005 115-124 First published online: 1 June 2010

Abstract

Background: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), widely known as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are thought to result from an inappropriate activation of the mucosal immune system driven by intestinal bacterial flora.

Methods: Although the extraintestinal manifestations of IBD are well documented, the association of IBD with neurologic and neuromuscular involvement is rare and often controversial, with sporadic and conflicting data on its prevalence and spectrum. In addition, a serious number of the latter manifestations may become life-threatening, playing a very important role in disease morbidity. To define the pattern of neurologic involvement in IBD, the most important manifestations in these patients have been reviewed, exploring also their clinical significance.

Results: There is evidence that UC and CD can manifest both in the PNS and CNS. Thrombotic complications are common in IBD patients, but cerebral vascular involvement is rare.

Conclusions: Neurologic manifestations in IBD patients are more common than previously estimated and may follow a different pattern of involvement in CD and UC. Small numbers of patients currently preclude a better characterization of the clinical spectrum and a better understanding of pathogenesis.

Keywords
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Neurologic symptoms
  • Co-morbidity
  • Extraintestinal manifestations
  • Abbreviations
    IBD
    inflammatory bowel disease
    CD
    Crohn's disease
    UC
    ulcerative colitis
    PN
    peripheral neuropathy
    cyA
    cyclosporine A
    MS
    multiple sclerosis
    MG
    myasthenia Gravis
    SEA
    spinal epidural abscess
    CNS
    central nervous system.
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