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Journal of Crohn's and Colitis: 9 (7)


Laurence J. Egan, Ireland

Associate Editors

Maria T. Abreu, USAShomron Ben-Horin, IsraelSilvio Danese, ItalyPeter Lakatos, HungaryMiles Parkes, UKGijs van den Brink, NLSéverine Vermeire, Belgium


Published on behalf of

Second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis Part 3: Special situations

Gert Van Assche , Axel Dignass , Bernd Bokemeyer , Silvio Danese , Paolo Gionchetti , Gabriele Moser , Laurent Beaugerie , Fernando Gomollón , Winfried Häuser , Klaus Herrlinger , Bas Oldenburg , Julian Panes , Francisco Portela , Gerhard Rogler , Jürgen Stein , Herbert Tilg , Simon Travis , James O. Lindsay
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crohns.2012.09.005 1-33 First published online: 1 February 2013
Key words
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Anaemia
  • Pouchitis
  • Colorectal cancer surveillance
  • Psychosomatic
  • Extraintestinal manifestations

8 Pouchitis

8.1 General

Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the procedure of choice for most patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) requiring colectomy.1 Pouchitis is a non-specific inflammation of the ileal reservoir and the most common complication of IPAA in patients with UC.2–7 Its frequency is related to the duration of follow up, occurring in up to 50% of patients 10 years after IPAA in large series from major referral centres.1–9 The cumulative incidence of pouchitis in patients with an IPAA for familial adenomatous polyposis is much lower, ranging from 0 to 10%.10–12 Reasons for the higher frequency of pouchitis in UC remain unknown. Whether pouchitis more commonly develops within the first years after IPAA or whether the risk continues to increase with longer follow up remains undefined.

Statement 8A

The diagnosis of pouchitis requires the presence of symptoms, together with characteristic endoscopic and histological abnormalities [EL3a, RG B]. Extensive UC, extraintestinal manifestations (i.e. PSC), being a non-smoker, p-ANCA positive serology and NSAID use are possible risk factors for pouchitis [EL3b, RG D]

8.1.1 Symptoms

After proctocolectomy with IPAA, median stool frequency is 4 to 8 bowel movements,1–4,13,14 with about 700 mL of semiformed/liquid stool per day,2,13,14 compared to a volume of 200 mL/day in healthy people. Symptoms related to pouchitis include increased stool frequency and liquidity, abdominal cramping, urgency, tenesmus and pelvic discomfort.2,15 Rectal bleeding, fever, or extraintestinal manifestations may occur. Rectal bleeding is more often related to inflammation of the rectal cuff (“cuffitis,” Section 1.4),16 than to pouchitis. Faecal incontinence may occur in the absence of pouchitis after IPAA, but is more common in patients with pouchitis. Symptoms of pouch dysfunction in patients with IPAA may be caused by conditions other than pouchitis, including Crohn's disease of the pouch,17–19 cuffitis16 and an irritable pouch …

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