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Journal of Crohn's and Colitis: 9 (5)

Editor-in-Chief

Laurence J. Egan, Ireland

Associate Editors

Maria T. Abreu, USAShomron Ben-Horin, IsraelSilvio Danese, ItalyPeter Lakatos, HungaryMiles Parkes, UKGijs van den Brink, NLSéverine Vermeire, Belgium

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Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2, alopecia universalis and Crohn's disease

Marijana Protic , Vladimir Gligorijevic , Daniela Bojic , Bojana Popovic , Svetozar Damjanovic , Njegica Jojic
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crohns.2012.05.009 318-321 First published online: 1 May 2013

Abstract

Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are defined as a spectrum of association between 2 or more organ specific endocrinopaties and non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes type 2 is characterized by the coexistence of adrenal failure with autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. Inflammatory bowel diseases are rarely associated with these autoimmune disorders.

Here, we report about a case of 33 years old male with known history of Crohn's colitis diagnosed in childhood. In 2003 the patient experienced sudden loss of hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard and body hair – alopecia universalis was diagnosed. At the age of 28, the patient was hospitalized with severe dehydration and clinical signs of ketoacidosis. Increased blood glucose (40 mmol/L), ketonuria and metabolic acidosis indicated diabetes mellitus type 1. In 2005, he had severe relapse of Crohn's disease and was treated with systemic corticosteroid. Although patient responded well to the induction therapy, fatigue, hypotension, bradycardia called for further investigations: free thyroxine – 6.99 pmol/L, thyroid-stimulating hormone > 75 U/ml, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies > 1000 U/mL, so diagnosis of Haschimoto thyroiditis was confirmed. Persistent hypotension and fatigue, recurrent hypoglycemic crises indicated a possible presence of hypo-function of adrenal glands. After complete withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy, low cortisol levels (69.4 nmol/L) and positive tetracosactide stimulation test proved adrenal cortex failure.

Regardless of the intensive treatment for diabetes, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and Crohn's disease, it was extremely difficult to achieve and maintain control of all four diseases.

Keywords
  • Crohn's disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes
  • Alopecia universalis
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